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PHP started out as a small open source project that evolved as more and more people found out how useful it was. Rasmus Lerdorf unleashed the first version of PHP way back in 1994. PHP is a recursive acronym for "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor". PHP is a server side scripting language that is embedded in HTML



  • Explaining the need and evolution of PHP
  • Illustrating the various assignment, arithmetic, comparison and string operators
  • Describing the usage of Comments and the Script Life cycle in PHP

Variable and constants

Detailing the basics of variable, constants, various data types and special characters in PHP


Describing the various arithmetic, assignment, comparison, concatenation, logical, bitwise and unary operators for conducting different operations on operands


Elucidating conditionals (if-else, switch and ternary operator) used in PHP for condition checking in PHP

Loop constructs

  • Describing the different loop constructs (while, for, for each and do while) of PHP
  • Understanding loop exiting keyword of continue and break


  • Explaining strings and their functions for manipulation in PHP
  • Understanding Single and Double quoted strings
  • Describing the usage of Heredoc and Nowdoc in PHP


  • Explaining array creation,reading, adding or deleting array elements and their functions
  • Describing the usage of associative arrays in PHP


  • Illustrating the basics of parameter and return values in functions
  • Detailing the concept of value and reference passing of parameter
  • Explaining the implementation of variable and anonymous functions
  • Describing various string, mathematical, date and time functions of PHP


  • Procedure of definition and usage of classes in PHP
  • Describing the usage of constructor and destructor in classes
  • Illustrating class constants, object interfaces, inheritance and abstraction
  • Explaining the concept of extending classes and visibility settings
  • Detailing traits and overloading
  • Describing object basics and references with their operations like iteration, cloning

File Handling

  • Describing the basics of file handling with detailing the various file operations like creating, opening, reading, writing, appending, closing and deleting a file
  • Explaining various useful file and directory functions


  • Explaining the database basics of table and query of database
  • Describing connecting and closing of database connection in PHP
  • Illustrating the steps to search, insert, update and delete data in a table
  • Detailing querying, sorting and grouping of records
  • Emphasizing the error handling mechanism in MySQL

Cookies management

Describing the creation, usage and deletion of cookies in PHP with usage of setcookie and setrawcookie


  • Explaining steps for starting an session, creation, accessing and usage of variables and destroying session variables
  • Illustrating the implementation of custom session handlers and managing session upload progress
  • Describing security as applicable to sessions and various sessions functions


  • Illustrating forms and their usage for data collection
  • Describing the various controls in an HTML form and steps to create a HTML form
  • Detailing the process to accept variables from external sources in PHP and image submissions


  • Explaining the applicability and implementation of security, optimization and error handling in PHP
  • Describing the steps of installation of PHP and it's requirements





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